Que d’Espoir d’Hanokh Levin (Israël)

 Ou rafraîchir sa vision du monde en riant

Dimanche 16 novembre 2014, 11h, nous nous retrouvons à la gare de Luxembourg pour partir vers Thionville pour le festival Total Theater Treffen.

Une petite heure de discussion autour du dossier de presse et nous voilà longeant la rivière pour rejoindre le théâtre en bois.

L’endroit est atypique. De l’extérieur, on a l’impression d’arriver aux abords d’un cirque en apercevant la structure en toile rouge qui le recouvre. Dès qu’on y entre, on se sent comme dans un cocon dans cette antre chaleureuse de bois clair. Une immense baie vitrée inonde la vaste pièce de la lumière des rives de la Moselle voisine. Ici l’aspect sophistiqué des grands lustres suspendus s’allie à l’aspect brut des poutres de bois.

Avant la représentation, la metteur en scène et la traductrice de la pièce nous racontent l’œuvre de l’auteur et son parcours. Elles nous disent leurs passions pour son univers, ce qui en lui les nourrit. La traductrice, Laurence Sendrowicz, nous rappelle l’engagement politique fervent d’Hanoch Levin, l’auteur de la pièce décédé en 1999. C’est lors de ses années de vie en Israël qu’elle l’a découvert. L’homme, issu d’une longue lignée de rabbins polonais nait à Tel Aviv en 1943 alors que son peuple subit l’Holocauste. Il grandira avec l’Etat hébreu et ne cessera d’en critiquer la politique expansionniste tout au long de sa vie.

Traumatisé par la mort des jeunes israéliens qu’il a vu tomber lors de son service militaire sur le mont Sinaï, il dénonce haut et fort le grignotage des territoires voisins, absurde à ses yeux.

En hébreu et en Israël uniquement, il fait vivre son opposition à travers le chapelet des 52 pièces qui composent son œuvre théâtrale. Chacune des représentations est une véritable bataille d’Hernani. Les israéliens ne supportent pas qu’on leur suggère que les soldats meurent pour rien, que ce conflit est absurde car en Israël, l’armée c’est la famille. Chaque homme israélien doit faire un service militaire de 3 ans puis donner chaque année de sa vie un mois de son temps pour l’armée. Alors ces morts, ce sont souvent des frères, des fils, des amis.

Insoutenable, le discours de Levin révolte. Il n’est jamais censuré par le pouvoir mais toujours accueilli avec brutalité par le public qui lance des tomates sur scène et met la salle sens dessus-dessous. Les directeurs de théâtre le déprogramment car ils ne peuvent pas assurer la sécurité des artistes et du public. Tout ce volet politique de l’oeuvre de Levin est entré dans la culture francophone grâce au travail opiniâtre de Laurence Sendrowicz qui l’a traduit depuis l’hébreu après avoir longuement échangé avec l’auteur pour qu’il accepte que ses écrits puissent traverser les frontières et toucher un public étranger. Comment pourrais-je être compris hors de mon pays, hors de ma langue s’est longuement interrogé Levin.

Aujourd’hui, Marie Normand, la jeune metteur en scène lorraine, a décidé de se concentrer sur l’aspect intime de l’œuvre de Levin, ses questionnement sur la manière de vivre des hommes : consumérisme, armée, deuil, religion. Les sujets de réflexion demeurent vastes.

Dépouillée de son militantisme politique, ce « Que d’Espoir », est une succession de scènes de vie qui nous mettent face à un miroir grimaçant. On en sort avec le sentiment d’avoir ri, d’avoir été touché aussi.

Puis, sur le chemin du retour, Levin continue à résonner en nous.

On revoit cette scène marquante sur l’absurdité du monde dans lequel évoluent les hommes si Dieu n’existe pas. Les acteurs sont dans le noir, on ne les voit que grâce à leurs petites lampes frontales. L’un d’eux récite un passage de la Gènese. Il termine par « Et Dieu dit : « Que la Lumière soit » et la Lumière fut ». Or, sur scène, les acteurs demeurent dans l’obscurité. Ebettés de voir que la Lumière ne vient pas alors qu’ils l’appellent, que Dieu l’a voulue, les acteurs se montrent un peu désemparés. Alors celui qui récitait ce passage biblique le répète, cette fois sur un ton plus volontariste. Mais au fond de sa voix commence à poindre le doute. Rien n’y fait. Dieu baisse la tête, en position d’échec. Les personnages se rapprochent de lui pour l’encourager. Mais il ne peut rien. Il est aussi impuissant que les hommes. Quelle leçon tirer de ce passage de Levin? Certains crient au scandale de le voir nous infliger son désespoir en espérant que nous le partagions : Dieu n’existe pas, les hommes sont condamnés à désespérer en s’en apercevant chaque jour un peu plus, au gré de leurs prières qui restent lettres mortes.

D’autres voient là un appel aux hommes, afin qu’ils prennent leur destin en mains, qu’ils se responsabilisent. Nous seuls sommes capables de faire la lumière sur notre existence. Ce ne sera jamais la lumière radieuse d’un Soleil. Nous garderons toujours cette vision étriquée du monde que la lampe frontale de nos esprits nous permet d’obtenir. Une perception parcellaire et une rationalité limitée, tels sont nos outils imparfaits pour comprendre et faire évoluer nos vies. Pas d’omniscience, pas de pleine conscience, juste un chemin qu’il nous appartient de tracer sans assurance qu’il soit le bon. Jamais. Imparfaits, maladroits, Levin nous laisse seuls responsables de nos sorts: Dieu n’existe pas et il nous appartient d’exhaucer nous-mêmes nos prières à force de volonté.

Cette scène ne dure que deux ou trois minutes mais elle demeure en nous. Elle est comme la question d’un ado tourmenté, jugée inepte sur le moment. Puis, qui, plus tard, vous revient, vous interpelle, fait chanceler votre aplomb et redonne de la malléabilité à votre perception du monde. Votre pensée pétrie de certitudes que vous preniez pour une terre cuite, à jamais figée voici qu’elle redevient argile. Un argile qui appelle vos mains au travail, à la recherche. Le torrent, venu revitaliser la terre ocre de votre intelligence, la charrier vers l’océan des possibles, a trois sources bien humaines: la pensée  limpide de Levin, le langage ciselé de Laurence Sendrowicz et la fraîcheur du regard de Marie Normand. Une pièce drôle et intelligente. A voir!

 

Nicolas Margot

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